A region ever the gateway to and from the Indian subcontinent, the waters of the Indus have been a baptism to every power that would seek to conquer the lands and people of India. So too has it been a mark upon which native powers would measure themselves by in crossing to show that they have transcended being an empire of India to become a kingdom of Greater-Asia. Amongst such soils torn asunder by the passing of great armies, divided kingdoms have taken root when the land is not submerged in greater empires of Iranian, Hindu, Turk or Arab. Even since the first arrival of Muslim domination to Northern India, the Indus remains characterized more than anything by divided sovereignty, ruled tenuously by the Caliphates as petty kingdoms both Hindu and Muslim rose from the ashes. With the ascension of Iranian-borne dynasties, it remained a no-mans-land for the Muslims to cross in incursions. Yet it would be with Mahmud of Ghazni that once more would foreign Muslim powers seek to include India as its own, though the Ghaznavids would linger only as but another player of Punjabi politics in the years following his death. Just as Rajput should emerge from the chaos of Hunnic and Kushan invasion, so too should the Jagirdar be borne from seed of spilled blood and womb of warring chaos. Persian in origin for ‘land assigned’, the Jagir is a small territory bestowed from a Muslim ruler to a military officer, in effect making him a subject-king of his fiefdom. Not only would power be granted to the Jagirdar, the holder of the Jagir fief, but so too would much of the income in order to maintain his family and troops. Typically upon death or departure of the Jagirdar, the lands would revert back to the King, but in certain cases the fiefdom would be hereditary. In an ironic twist of fate, it would take further dividing up an Indus ruler’s kingdom to avoid having his land be ripped apart into divided kingdoms. Though it has largely been an Arab influence which was felt in the martial traditions of Sindh, the horse-archery of the Khorasani Dynasties of the 9th and 10th century, along with the rising power of the Turks, has given rise to an appreciation of the mounted bowman. Though in it’s early years amongst the Soomro, their ancestral traditions of horsemanship and foot archery have merged well, producing a horsemen well versed in mounted archery upon swift steed. Having taken well to the role, these Jagirdar operate as medium horse archers, relying upon speed to see themselves clear of heavier foes, before turning upon their weakened enemy with vicious mace and parrying shield.